A molecular imaging probe comprising superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and Mycobacterium tuberculosis surface antibody (MtbsAb) was synthesized to enhance imaging sensitivity for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (ETB). An SPIO nanoprobe was synthesized and conjugated with MtbsAb. The purified SPIO-MtbsAb nanoprobe was characterized using TEM and NMR. To determine the targeting ability of the probe, SPIO-MtbsAb nanoprobes were incubated with Mtb for in vitro imaging assays and injected into Mtb-inoculated mice for in vivo investigation with magnetic resonance (MR). The contrast enhancement reduction on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Mtb and THP1 cells showed proportional to the SPIO-MtbsAb nanoprobe concentration. After 30 min of intravenous SPIO-MtbsAb nanoprobe injection into Mtb-infected mice, the signal intensity of the granulomatous site was enhanced by 14-fold in the T2-weighted MR images compared with that in mice receiving PBS injection. The MtbsAb nanoprobes can be used as a novel modality for ETB detection.