Abstract: The Bi2WO6/BiVO4 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using fast microwave assisted method. The photocatalytic activities of Bi2WO6/BiVO4 nanocomposites were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible irradiation. The optimal BiVO4 content of 30% was observed for improving the photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/BiVO4 nanocomposites, and the mechanism of photocatalytic activity enhancement was investigated. Our results suggest that for the Bi2WO6/BiVO4 nanocomposites, particle surface area plays the most important role for improving photocatalytic activity, and electron–hole recombination rate plays more important role than amount of light absorbed by nanocomposites for improving photocatalytic activity. Graphical abstract: [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.].