We investigated the physical and electrical characteristics of Ti-based nanocrystals (NCs) with composition of germanium fabricated by cosputtering titanium silicide and germanium targets for low temperature applications of nonvolatile memory. The addition of Ge significantly reduces the thermal budget necessary for Ti-based NCs formation to 500 degrees C in 2 min due to the rise of its morphological instability and agglomeration properties. Compositions characteristics were analyzed by x-ray photon-emission spectroscopy and formations of NCs were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, capacitance-voltage characteristics, data retention, and endurance properties are characterized to demonstrate its advantages for nonvolatile memory device applications.
Feng, L. W., Chang, C-Y., Tu, C. H., Wang, P-S., Chang, Y. F., Chen, C. M., & Huang, H. C. (2009). Role of germanium in the reduced temperature dependence of Ti-based nanocrystals formation for nonvolatile memory applications. Applied Physics Letters, . https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3279131