Silk fibers were introduced into hydroxyapatite(HA)/chitosan(CS) matrix to prepare scaffold materials of bone tissue engineering with the adequate initial strength and improved cellular affinity using combination of in situ synthesis and freeze-drying technique. Chemical component was investigated using X rays diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR). Structure and morphology of the composites were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Porosity was tested by liquid substitution method. The mechanical properties of the composites were also measured. The simulated body fluid (SBF) and the cell culture experiments were conducted to assess biological properties of the composites. Results show that the composites with a pore size of 100∼250μm have a porosity of 75%∼90%and the maximum compressive strength of 5.7 MPa. The compressive strength of the composite is greatly improved in comparison with that of HA/CS matrix (4.6 MPa). In the SBF tests, a layer of randomly oriented apatite crystals form on the scaffold surface after sample immersion in SBF. The cell culture experiments show that the osteoblast cells are attached and proliferated on the surface of the composite, which suggests good bioactivity and cellular compatibility of the composite material. It is concluded that the composites have a promising prospect as bone tissue engineering materials.