BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in mediating the action of insulin on cell growth and the development of diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the miRNA-mediated signaling network in response to glucose in pancreatic beta cells. In our study, we established a computational framework integrating multi-omics profiles analyses, including RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) data analysis, inverse expression pattern analysis, public data integration, and miRNA targets prediction to illustrate the miRNA-mediated regulatory network at different glucose concentrations in INS-1 pancreatic beta cells (INS-1), which display important characteristics of the pancreatic beta cells. RESULTS: We applied our computational framework to the expression profiles of miRNA/mRNA of INS-1, at different glucose concentrations. A total of 1437 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 153 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) were identified from multi-omics profiles. In particular, 121 DEmiRs putatively regulated a total of 237 DEGs involved in glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, ion channels, exocytosis, homeostasis, and insulin gene regulation. Moreover, Argonaute 2 immunoprecipitation sequencing, qRT-PCR, and luciferase assay identified Crem, Fn1, and Stc1 are direct targets of miR-146b and elucidated that miR-146b acted as a potential regulator and promising target to understand the insulin signaling network. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the integration of experimentally verified data with system biology framework extracts the miRNA network for exploring potential insulin-associated miRNA and their target genes. The findings offer a potentially significant effect on the understanding of miRNA-mediated insulin signaling network in the development and progression of pancreatic diabetes.