Identifying the causes of high fever syndromes such as Kawasaki disease (KD) remains challenging. To investigate pathogen exposure signatures in suspected pathogen-mediated diseases such as KD, we performed immunoglobulin (Ig) profiling using a next-generation sequencingmethod. After intravenous Ig (IVIG) treatment, we observed disappearance of clonally expanded IgMclonotypes, which were dominantly observed in acute-phase patients. The complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences of dominant IgM clonotypes in acute-phase patients were commonly observed in other Ig isotypes. In acute-phase KD patients, we identified 32 unique IgM CDR3 clonotypes shared in three ormore cases. Furthermore, before the IVIG treatment, the sums of dominant IgMclonotypes in IVIG-resistant KD patients were significantly higher than those of IVIG-sensitive KD patients. Collectively, we demonstrate a novel approach for identifying certain Ig clonotypes for potentially interacting with pathogens involved in KD; this approach could be applied for a wide variety of fever-causing diseases of unknown origin.