Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create a vision and obtain a consensus on Taiwan's nanotechnology industry in three dimensions (the 2007 situation, the R&D maturation time, and the 2020 scenario). It then seeks to foster a set of development strategies for Taiwan in 2020. Design/methodology/approach: A Delphi-based foresight study together with an expert discussion meeting has been conducted to obtain a consensus for Taiwan nanotechnology in 2020. Findings: The paper provides the results of the first Delphi-based survey on Taiwan nanotechnology development. The Nano Bio Medicine domain has greater maturity; the maturation time of most techniques will be 2010-2015; Nanocomposite Material Technique, Nano Optoelectronic and Optical Communication, and Nano Storage show relatively high competitiveness. Self-R&D and Technology introduced from overseas are the major development methods in 2020. Practical implications: The paper is of interest to foresight practitioners and policy makers at the industrial and government levels in Taiwan. Originality/value: The paper is the first publication to identify Taiwan's 2020 nanotechnology development by Delphi-based foresight investigation.