A new approach to camera calibration using vanishing line information for three-dimensional computer vision is proposed. Calibrated parameters include the orientation, the position, the focal length, and the image plane center of a camera. A rectangular parallelepiped is employed as the calibration target to generate three principal vanishing points and then three vanishing lines from the projected image of the parallelepiped. Only a monocular image is required for solving these camera parameters. It is shown that the image plane center is the orthocenter of a triangle formed by the three vanishing lines. From the slopes of the vanishing lines the camera orientation parameters can be determined. The focal length can be computed by the area of the triangle. The camera position parameters can then be calibrated by using related geometric projective relationships. The derived results show the geometric meanings of these camera parameters. The calibration formulas are analytic and simple to compute. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach for a practical application-autonomous land vehicle guidance.