A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method was developed in the present study as an effective sample pretreatment technique of petroleum distillates from fire debris. Three petroleum distillates were used as target analytes, including 95 unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and premium diesel. An orthogonal array (L16) experimental design was adopted to separately evaluate primary SFE experimental factors. The SFE efficiencies of petroleum distillates at various extraction conditions were examined and the optimized SFE conditions were identified. Experimental results demonstrated that the optimized SFE method not only provided an effective extraction method for the spiked sample, but also successfully recovered residues of petroleum distillates from fire debris.