Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is a potential nonvolatile memory to apply in large-scale integration systems due to its high switching speed and cost-effective priority. Transition metal oxides have been utilized as the switching layer owing to the stable structure and variable oxidation state of transition metals. In this work, a functional RRAM device (Pt/AlOx/ZnO/Ti) was fabricated, and the resistive switching process could be well controlled by the voltage supply. The device exhibited low power consumption (0.586 nW for SET, 0.596 nW for RESET, and forming free), self-current compliance in LRS (106 Ω with approximately 10−5 A), and high cycling endurance (up to 3 ×103 times). The switching mechanism has been discussed in detail and comprehensively analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electrons energy loss spectrum (EELS). The results provide strong evidence of the continuous oxygen vacancy filaments in ZnO and discontinuous oxygen-deficient regions in AlOx. The switching mechanism for complex structure RRAM is verified and a potential candidate selection with excellent electrical properties is demonstrated.