Wavelet tree quantization for copyright protection watermarking

Shih Hao Wang*, Yuan-Pei Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

254 Scopus citations


This paper proposes a wavelet-tree-based blind watermarking scheme for copyright protection. The wavelet coefficients of the host image are grouped into so-called super trees. The watermark is embedded by quantizing super trees. The trees are so quantized that they exhibit a large enough statistical difference, which will later be used for watermark extraction. Each watermark bit is embedded in perceptually important frequency bands, which renders the mark more resistant to frequency based attacks. Also, the watermark is spread throughout large spatial regions. This yields more robustness against time domain geometric attacks. Examples of various attacks will be given to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed technique.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1278331
Pages (from-to)154-165
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2004


  • Blind watermarking
  • Copyright protection
  • Quantization
  • Wavelet

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