Vacuum packaging technology using localized aluminum/silicon-to-glass bonding

Yu-Ting Cheng*, Wan Tai Hsu, Khalil Najafi, Clark T.C. Nguyen, Liwei Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

109 Scopus citations


A glass vacuum package based on localized aluminum/silicon-to-glass bonding has been successfully demonstrated. A constant heat flux model shows that heating can be confined locally in the dielectric layer underneath a microheater as long as the width of the microheater and the thickness of silicon substrate are much smaller than the die size and a good heat sink is placed underneath the silicon substrate. With 3.4 W heating power, ∼ 0.2 MPa applied contact pressure and 90 min wait time before bonding, vacuum encapsulation at 25 mtorr (∼ 3.33 Pa) can be achieved. Folded-beam comb drive μ-resonators are encapsulated and used as pressure monitors. Long-term testing of vacuum-packaged μ-resonators with a Quality Factor (Q) of 2500 has demonstrated stable operation after 69 weeks. A μ-resonator with a Q factor of ∼ 9600 has been vacuum encapsulated and shown to be stable after 56 weeks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)556-565
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2002


  • Localized heating
  • MEMS packaging
  • Microresonators
  • Vacuum encapsulation
  • Wafer level packaging

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