Using Gower Plots and Decision Balls to rank alternatives involving inconsistent preferences

Li Ching Ma*, Han-Lin Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Ranking alternatives involving inconsistent preferences is one of the most important topics in decision-making. Determining how to assist decision makers in understanding the decision context and adjusting inconsistencies in judgment are two important issues in ranking alternatives. This study proposes a visualization approach which will assist decision makers in ranking alternatives involving inconsistent preferences. Gower Plots are adopted to detect alternatives involving inconsistencies. An adjusting model is developed to provide suggestions for simultaneously improving ordinal and cardinal inconsistencies. A Decision Ball model is applied to visualize the decision context. By a graphical and interactive interface, decision makers can iteratively detect inconsistencies, choose the preferred way to adjust inconsistencies, observe relationships among alternatives, and then rank alternatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)712-719
Number of pages8
JournalDecision Support Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2011


  • Decision Ball
  • Gower Plot
  • Inconsistence
  • Ranking
  • Visualization

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