In this paper, we report a method for fabricating biofunctionalized nanoparticles by attaching human immunoglobulin (IgG) onto their surfaces through either electrostatic interactions or covalent binding. We found that these IgG-presenting nanoparticles can bind selectively to the cell walls of pathogens that contain IgG-binding sites based on the investigation of transmission electron microscopy images. Our results demonstrate that such Au-IgG nanoparticles may serve as useful nanoscale probes for exploring the interactions between IgG and pathogens. Furthermore, the IgG-presenting magnetic nanoparticles have been employed as effective affinity probes for selectively concentrating traces of target bacteria from sample solutions. The trapped bacteria were then characterized by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The lowest cell concentration we detected for both Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus aureus in aqueous sample solutions (0.5 mL) was ∼3 × 105 cfu/mL, while the detectable cell concentration for S. saprophyticus in a urine sample was ∼3 × 107 cfu/mL.