In the emerging Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm, the lifetime of energy-constrained devices (ECDs) cannot be ensured due to the limited battery capacity. In this article, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are served as carriers of wireless power chargers (WPCs) to charge the ECDs. Aiming at maximizing the total amount of charging energy under the constraints of the UAVs and WPCs, a multiple-period charging process problem is formulated. To address this problem, bipartite matching with one-sided preferences is introduced to model the charging relationship between the ECDs and UAVs. Nevertheless, the traditional one-shot static matching is not suitable for this dynamic scenario, and thus the problem is further solved by the novel multiple-stage dynamic matching. Besides, the wireless charging process is history dependent since the current matching result will influence the future initial charging status, and consequently, the Markov decision process (MDP) and Bellman equation are leveraged. Then, by combining the MDP and random serial dictatorship (RSD) matching algorithm together, a four-step algorithm is proposed. In our proposed algorithm, the local MDPs for the ECDs are set up first. Next, using the RSD algorithm, all possible actions can be presented according to the current state. Then, the joint MDP is built based on the local MDPs and all the possible matching results. Finally, the Bellman equation is utilized to select the optimal branch. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.
- Dynamic matching
- Energy-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) device
- Markov decision process (MDP)
- Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
- Wireless charging