Two-Photon Photoexcited Photodynamic Therapy and Contrast Agent with Antimicrobial Graphene Quantum Dots

Wen Shuo Kuo*, Chia Yuan Chang, Hua Han Chen, Chih Li Lilian Hsu, Jiu Yao Wang, Hui Fang Kao, Lawrence Chao Shan Chou, Yi Chun Chen, Shean-Jen Chen, Wen Tsan Chang, Shih Wen Tseng, Ping Ching Wu, Ying Chih Pu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


A graphene quantum dot (GQD) used as the photosensitizer with high two-photon absorption in the near-infrared region, a large absolute cross section of two-photon excitation (TPE), strong two-photon luminescence, and impressive two-photon stability could be used for dual modality two-photon photodynamic therapy (PDT) and two-photon bioimaging with an ultrashot pulse laser (or defined as TPE). In this study, a GQD efficiently generated reactive oxygen species coupled with TPE, which highly increased the effective PDT ability of both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, with ultralow energy and an extremely short photoexcitation time generated by TPE. Because of its two-photon properties, a GQD could serve as a promising two-photon contrast agent for observing specimens in depth in three-dimensional biological environments while simultaneously proceeding with PDT action to eliminate bacteria, particularly in multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. This procedure would provide an efficient alternative approach to easily cope with MDR bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30467-30474
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number44
StatePublished - 9 Nov 2016


  • graphene quantum dot
  • multidrug resistant
  • reactive oxygen species
  • three-dimensional two-photon bioimaging
  • two-photon photodynamic therapy

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