Non-Hermitian photonic systems with gains and/or losses have recently emerged as a powerful approach for topology-protected optical transport and novel device applications. To date, most of these systems employ coupled optical systems of diffraction-limited dielectric waveguides or microcavities, which exchange energy spatially or temporally. Here, we introduce a diffraction-unlimited approach using a plasmon-exciton coupling (polariton) system with tunable plasmonic resonance (energy and line width) and coupling strength. By designing a chirped silver nanogroove cavity array and coupling a single tungsten disulfide monolayer with a large contrast in resonance line width, we show the tuning capability through energy level anticrossing and plasmon-exciton hybridization (line width crossover), as well as spontaneous symmetry breaking across the exceptional point at zero detuning. This two-dimensional hybrid material system can be applied as a scalable and integratable platform for non-Hermitian photonics, featuring seamless integration of two-dimensional materials, broadband tuning, and operation at room temperature.
- non-Hermitian system
- two-dimensional material