A novel single-transistor EEPROM device using single-polysilicon technology is described. This memory is programmed by channel hot-electron injection and the charges are stored in the oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) gate dielectric. Erasing is accomplished in milliseconds by applying a positive voltage to the drain plus an optional negative voltage to the gate, causing electron tunneling and/or hot-hole injection due to the deep-depletion-mode drain breakdown. Since the injection and storage of electrons and holes are confined to a short region near the drain, the part of the channel near the source maintains the original positive threshold voltage even after repeated erase operation. Therefore a select transistor, separate or integral, is not needed. Because oxide layers with a thickness larger than 60 angstrom are used, this device has much better data retention characteristics than conventional MNOS memory cells. This device has been successfully tested for write/erase endurance to 10,000 cycles.