Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

Jin-Li Hu*, Shih Chuan Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

826 Scopus citations


This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3206-3217
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy Policy
Issue number17
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2006


  • China economy
  • Data envelopment analysis
  • Total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE)

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