Thermomigration of Ti in flip-chip solder joints

Hsiao Yun Chen, Han Wen Lin, Chien Min Liu, Yuan Wei Chang, Annie T. Huang, Chih Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Titanium has a very large heat of transport value of -768 kJ mol -1. However, thermomigration of Ti in solder joints has not been examined. In this study, void formation was observed in non-current-stressed Al traces during electromigration and thermomigration tests of SnAg solder joints. Voids formed inside the traces located above the solder bumps with no current flow. We found that Ti thermomigration occurred in the joint, resulting in the reaction of Al and Cu, leaving voids behind in the Al trace.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)694-697
Number of pages4
JournalScripta Materialia
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 May 2012


  • Diffusion
  • Intermetallic compounds
  • Soldering
  • Titanium

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