This paper reports a theoretical and experimental study for thermal transport in a thin slice of human tooth induced by a 120 fs, 800 nm pulse laser at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The surface reflectivity of enamel and the convection heat transfer coefficient were determined using an inverse heat transfer analysis. Instead of a fully three-dimensional modeling, two simplified two-dimensional (2D) planar and axisymmetric heat conduction models were proposed to simulate the temperature fields. The temperature responses obtained from the 2D planar and axisymmetric model agree well with the experimental measurements. On the other hand, the one-dimensional (1D) result significantly differs from the 2D axisymmetric one, suggesting that care should be taken when a 1D thermal model is considered for estimating temperature response.