The impact of phthalate on reproductive function in women with endometriosis

Ya Ching Chou, Chii Ruey Tzeng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition in which stromal or glandular epithelium is implanted in extrauterine locations. Endometriosis causes detrimental effects on the granulosa cells, and phthalate interferes with the biological and reproductive function of endometrial cells at a molecular level. Methods: This article retrospectively reviewed the studies on phthalate exposure and its relationship with endometriosis. A literature search was performed for scientific articles using the keywords “phthalate and endometriosis,” “endometriosis and granulosa cells,” “phthalate and granulosa cells,” and “phthalates and endometrial cells.”. Results: Endometriosis can affect cytokine production, steroidogenesis, cell cycle progression, expression of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α)/progesterone receptor (PR), and cause endoplasmic reticulum stress, senescence, apoptosis, autophagy, and oxidative stress in the granulosa cells. Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) alters the expression of cytokines, cell cycle-associated genes, ovarian stimulation, steroidogenesis, and progesterone production. Several in vitro studies have demonstrated that phthalate caused inflammation, invasion, change in cytokines, increased oxidative stress, viability, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, and proliferation of endometrial cells. Conclusion: This might provide new insights about the impact of phthalate on the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its consequences on the ovarian function.

Original languageEnglish
JournalReproductive Medicine and Biology
StatePublished - 11 Jan 2021


  • endometrial cells
  • endometriosis
  • granulosa cells
  • phthalate
  • reproductive function

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