This study evaluated the driving performance of drivers presented with 2D and 3D electronic navigation maps and a traditional paper map with various route structures. A heads-up display was used to show the different driving conditions for each navigation map system. Results revealed that the drivers using an electronic navigation map performed better compared to the drivers using a paper map. The results also indicated that drivers who used 2D-regular pattern or 2D-irregular corner maps performed more efficiently than the drivers who used a 3D-regular pattern or 3D-irregular corner maps in reaching their destinations. In addition, drivers can save time and fuel by using 2D navigation maps in unfamiliar regions.
Hsu, S-H., Lin, C-H., & Chao, C-J. (2012). THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NAVIGATION MAPS ON DRIVING PERFORMANCE. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 115(2), 403-414. https://doi.org/10.2466/22.24.PMS.115.5.403-414