The W-based diffusion barriers W, WC and WCN barriers were investigated for Cu metallization. The thermal stability of the W, WC and WCN barriers was compared by X-ray diffraction and four point probe. It shows comparable stability for the W and WC barriers while the ternary WCN barrier has superior performance. The agglomeration of the Cu films (100 nm) on these barriers is quite different. The formation of voids was observed for the annealed copper film on the WC or WCN barriers and the activation energy values determined from Kissinger equation are low comparing with Cu on W barrier. Twins were also observed in the as-deposited and annealed Cu films on the WC and WCN barriers. The twin formation and its correlation with void formation for Cu films onto the C-containing diffusion barrier were discussed through the stress relaxation and stress-induced vacancy migration mechanism.
- Copper film
- Diffusion barrier