Interfacial morphologies during Cu wafer bonding at bonding temperatures of 300-400°C for 30 min followed by an optional 30-min or 60-min nitrogen anneal were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that increased bonding temperature or increased annealing duration improved the bonding quality. Wafers bonded at 400°C for 30 min followed by nitrogen annealing at 400°C for 30 min, and wafers bonded at 350°C for 30 min followed by nitrogen annealing at 350°C for 60 min achieve the same excellent bonding quality.
- Copper (Cu)
- Wafer bonding