Temperature and current-density distributions in flip-chip solder joints with Cu traces

C. Y. Hsu*, D. J. Yao, S. W. Liang, Chih Chen, Everett C.C. Yeh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional simulation was performed to investigate the temperature and current density distribution in flip-chip solder joints with Cu traces during current stressing. It was found that the Cu traces can reduce the Joule heating effect significantly at high stressing currents. When the solder joints were stressed by 0.6 A, the average temperature increase in solder bumps with the Al traces was 26.7°C, and it was deceased to 18.7°C for the solder joint with the Cu traces. Hot spots exist in the solder near the entrance points of the Al or Cu traces. The temperature increases in the hot spot were 29.3°C and 20.6°C, for solder joints with the Al traces and Cu traces, respectively. As for current density distribution, the maximum current density inside the solder decreased slightly from 1.66 × 10 5 A/cm 2 to 1.46 × 10 5 A/cm 2 when the Al traces were replaced by the Cu traces. The solder joints with the Cu traces exhibited lower Joule heating and current crowding effects than those with the Al traces, which was mainly attributed to the lower electrical conductivity of the Cu traces. Therefore, the solder joints with the Cu traces are expected to have better electromigration resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)947-953
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2006


  • Current crowding
  • Electromigration
  • Flip chip

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