Synthesis and relationships between the nonlinear optical and holographic properties of dual functional azocarbazole chromophores based on photorefractive polymers

Chi Jung Chang, Wha Tzong Whang, Chia Chen Hsu, Zhen Yu Ding, Ken-Yuh Hsu, Shiuan-Huei Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

Two kinds of dual functional carbazole-based chromophores are synthesized to enhance the photorefractive (PR) performance of the polymers by attaching the electron-donating and electron-accepting groups with a diazo bridge on the 3- and 6-positions of the N-ethylcarbazole. The electron-donating group is N,N-diethanol aminophenyl. The electron-accepting group is either p-nitrophenyl or 5-nitrothiazole. The peak maximum of the UV/vis absorption spectra of the 5-nitrothiazole-containing chromophore PANTAC at 535 nm is longer than that of the p-nitrophenyl-containing PANPAC at 477 nm. Both chromophores exhibit a large first hyperpolarizability in the hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiment due to the extended chain length. The first hyperpolarizability of PANTAC is 1100 × 10-30 esu, almost the double of that of PANPAC (590 × 10-30 esu). The diffraction efficiencies of both polymers are the function of the film thickness and the laser beam wavelength with a maximum ηmax at a thickness dmax between 15 and 23 μm. Surprisingly, the PANPAC-based PR polymer reveals a higher maximum diffraction efficiency (ηmax) and better fringe of the stored holograms than the PANTAC-based PR polymer does. Both the PR polymers written/read by the green/red laser have greater ηmax values than those written/read by the green/green laser. These phenomena are related to the balance between absorption and transmission of the laser beam through the PR polymer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5637-5646
Number of pages10
JournalMacromolecules
Volume32
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - 24 Aug 1999

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