A new series of sulfide-containing polyfluorene homopolymers and copolymers (PFS, PF1, PF3 and PF4) comprising 9,9-di[11-(decylsulfanyl)undecyl] fluorene, 9,9-dihexylfluorene, triphenylamine or benzothiadiazole moieties were synthesized by Ni(0)-mediated Yamamoto-coupling and palladium-catalyzed Suzuki polymerizations. Three other polyfluorenes (PF2, PF5 and PFC6) without sulfur atom in the alkyl side chains were also synthesized by a similar method for comparison purpose. These fluorene-based polymers were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, DSC, TGA, photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopies. The synthesized polymers PFS and PF1-PF3 emit blue light at around 440-468 nm, while copolymers PF4 and PF5 emit green light at around 540 nm. In annealing experiments, these polymer films show better stability against thermal oxidation than polymer PFC6. Sulfide-containing polymers show not only good electroluminescent color stability, but their EL spectra also remain unchanged at high driving voltage. A multi-layer electroluminescent device with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/PF1/CsF/Al exhibited a stable sky-blue emission with color coordinates (0.21, 0.23) at 10 V, which showed a maximum brightness of 2991 cd/m2 at 8 V (75 mA/cm2) and a maximum efficiency of 1.36 cd/A. Finally, by ligand exchange process, the sulfur element could form coordination bonding with quantum dots, and PLED devices using these new QDs-containing organic/inorganic hybrid materials as light-emitting layers exhibit superior or comparable EL performance compared to those without quantum dots.
- Light-emitting diodes