A synchronization scheme using self-pulsating laser diodes in optical chaotic communication is proposed. Optical chaotic light can be obtained by injecting a sinusoidal electronic signal into a self-pulsating laser diode. To synchronize between two identical chaotic systems with different initial conditions, a drive and response system model is constructed according to Pecora and Carroll's theory. Synchronization can be achieved for optical simplex and duplex transmissions provided that the conditional Lyapunov exponents for the drive and response systems are all negative. This approach offers a key step toward realizing optical chaotic modulation and demodulation.