Switched-Capacitor-Assisted Power Gating for Ultra-Low Standby Power in CMOS Digital ICs

Sivaneswaran Sankar*, Mayank Goel, Po-Hung Chen, V. Ramgopal Rao, Maryam Shojaei Baghini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article presents Switched-Capacitor assisted Power Gating (SwCap PG) for reducing the leakage currents of large digital circuits. For the first time, PG switch is biased in the super turn-off and the super turn-on mode during the off-state and the on-state, respectively. A simple switched-capacitor network reconfigures and biases the PG switch in four different possible states with low area and power overhead. During the super turn-off, voltage stress is avoided in the PG switch when the circuit load uses supply voltage equal to the nominal V-DD in a given technology, and maximum possible leakage current reduction is achieved by the optimal biasing of the gate voltage. The proposed SwCap PG is experimentally validated in the 180nm CMOS technology. Measurement results of CMOS SwCap PG show that leakage current and R-ON reduce by 186-226x and 18% respectively, as compared to the conventional PG. An alternate solution for SwCap network using MEMS devices as the switching elements is implemented for additional benefits. Measurement results of MEMS SwCap PG show that leakage current and R-ON reduce by 172x and 26% respectively, compared to the conventional PG. Finally, the applicability of the SwCap PG in the nano-scale CMOS technologies is addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4281-4294
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Switching circuits
  • Switches
  • Leakage currents
  • Logic gates
  • CMOS technology
  • Micromechanical devices
  • Voltage measurement
  • Charge pump
  • FinFET
  • GIDL
  • leakage current
  • low power
  • MEMS switch
  • on-resistance
  • power gating
  • power switch
  • standby power
  • subthreshold
  • super cut-off CMOS
  • super turn-on CMOS
  • switched-capacitor circuits
  • BIAS
  • SOC

Cite this