In this chapter, we review recent progress related to the incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) as a means of enhancing power conversion efficiencies. We begin by describing the fundamental properties of surface plasmons (SPs). We then outline the two primary schemes that are commonly employed for excitation of the SPs: the use of noble metal particles to trigger the SPs and the creation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) through approaches that can overcome the problem of momentum mismatch (e.g., periodic corrugation at the metal–dielectric interface). Next, we discuss some recent remarkable approaches toward increasing the light absorption efficiency of OPVs, highlighting three categories of plasmonic structures that enhance the performance of OPVs. Finally, we provide a brief outlook regarding the future use of SPs in high-efficiency OPVs.