Surface effects on angular distributions in X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy

Yung-Fu Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


The spatially varying inelastic mean free paths of photoelectrons emitted from a solid surface have been calculated from an extended Drude dielectric function, that considers the characteristic oscillator strength, damping constant, and critical-point energy for each subband of valence electrons. The results reveal that the additional inelastic scattering probability due to surface effects can be regarded as a surface excitation probability on the vacuum side and can be taken into account by use of a surface excitation parameter. The X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy formalism in which elastic-scattering effects have been accounted for has been extended to include surface effects. The results show that surface effects lead to a reduction of photoelectron intensities at small emission angles and a sharp decrease at large angles (75°) since surface excitations are most probable for glancing electrons. However, the difference between the results obtained with and without surface effects for emission angles less than 60° are small because of the method by which the results were normalized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-124
Number of pages10
JournalSurface Science
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2002


  • Dielectric phenomena
  • Electron emission
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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