Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed on a Ni-based nanoprecipitate-strengthened superalloy. A theoretical model for SANS absolute intensity distribution I (Q) was presented to extract the structural properties. During the deformation process, a change in the morphology of precipitates was discovered. However, the average interprecipitate distance and the average volume of precipitates were found to remain invariant. This microstructural information resolved by SANS is in good agreement with the results obtained from the quantitative transmission-electron-microscopy image analysis.