Structure and properties of lead-free solders bearing micro and nano particles

Liang Zhang, King-Ning Tu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

204 Scopus citations


Composite lead-free solders, containing micro and nano particles, have been widely studied. Due to grain boundary drag or Zener drag, these particles can refrain the solder microstructure from coarsening in services, especially for Cu6Sn5, Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds and the β-Sn phases. Due to dispersion hardening or dislocation drag, the mechanical properties of the composite solder alloys were enhanced significantly. Moreover, these particles can influence the rate of interfacial reactions, and some particles can transform into a layer of intermetallic compound. Wettability, creep resistance, and hardness properties were affected by these particles. A systematic review of the development of these lead-free composite solders is given here, which hopefully may find applications in microbumps to be used in the future 3D IC technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-32
Number of pages32
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering R: Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Creep
  • Intermetallic compounds
  • Lead-free solders
  • Nano-particles

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