Stringy symmetries and their high-energy limits

Chuan Tsung Chan*, Jen-Chi Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


We derive stringy symmetries with conserved charges of arbitrarily high spins from the decoupling of two types of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string. These symmetries are valid to all energy α′ and all loop orders χ in string perturbation theory. The high-energy limit α′→∞ of these stringy symmetries can then be used to fix the proportionality constants between scattering amplitudes of different string states algebraically without referring to Gross and Mende's saddle point calculation of high-energy string-loop amplitudes. These proportionality constants are, as conjectured by Gross, independent of the scattering angle φCM and the order χ of string perturbation theory. However, we also discover some new nonzero components of high-energy amplitudes not found previously by Gross and Manes. These components are essential to preserve massive gauge invariances or decouple massive zero-norm states of string theory. A set of massive scattering amplitudes and their high energy limit are calculated explicitly to justify our results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-198
Number of pages6
JournalPhysics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 31 Mar 2005

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