Spontaneous Tin Whisker Growth: Mechanism and Prevention

King Ning Tu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Whisker growth on beta-tin (β-Sn) is a surface relief phenomenon of creep [1–16]. It is driven by a compressive stress gradient and occurs at room temperature. Spontaneous Sn whiskers are known to grow on matte Sn finish on Cu. Today, due to the wide application of Pb-free solders on Cu conductors used in the packaging of consumer electronic products, Sn whisker growth has become a serious reliability issue because the Sn-based Pb-free solders are very rich in Sn. The matrix of most Sn-based Pb-free solders is almost pure Sn. The well-known phenomena of tin such as tin-cry, tin-pest, and tin-whisker are receiving attention again.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Series in Materials Science
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages29
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2007

Publication series

NameSpringer Series in Materials Science
ISSN (Print)0933-033X
ISSN (Electronic)2196-2812


  • Consumer Electronic Product
  • Deviatoric Strain Tensor
  • Laue Pattern
  • Stress Gradient
  • Whisker Growth

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