Pollution loads discharged from upstream development or human activities significantly degrade the water quality of a reservoir. The design of an appropriate water quality sampling network is therefore important for detecting potential pollution events and monitoring pollution trends. However, under a limited budgetary constraint, how to site an appropriate number of sampling stations is a challenging task. A previous study proposed a method applying the simulated annealing algorithm to design the sampling network based on three cost factors including the number of reaches, bank length, and subcatchment area. However, these factors are not directly related to the distribution of possible pollution. Thus, this study modified the method by considering three additional factors, i.e. total phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment loads. The larger the possible load, the higher the probability of a pollution event may occur. The study area was the Derchi reservoir catchment in Taiwan. Pollution loads were derived from the AGNPS model with rainfall intensity estimated using the Thiessen method. Analyses for a network with various numbers of sampling sites were implemented. The results obtained based on varied cost factors were compared and discussed. With the three additional factors, the chosen sampling network is expected to properly detect pollution events and monitor pollution distribution and temporal trends.
- Environmental systems analysis
- Multi-objective model
- Nonpoint source pollution
- Siting analysis
- Water quality sampling