Simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to detect the parameters of lines, circles, ellipses, and hyperbolic patterns. We define the distance from a point to a pattern such that the detection becomes feasible, especially in hyperbola. The proposed simulated annealing parameter detection system has the capability to find a set of parameter vectors with global minimal error to the input data. Using average minimum distance, we propose a method to determine the number of patterns automatically. Experiments on the detection of lines, circles, ellipses, and hyperbolas in images are quite successful. The detection system is also applied to detect the line pattern of direct wave and the hyperbolic pattern of reflection wave in the simulated one-shot seismogram. The results are good and can improve seismic interpretations and further seismic data processing.