A Hierarchical system is proposed by using simulated annealing to detect hyperbola in image. The hierarchical detection procedures are patterns by patterns. The equation of hyperbola is defined under translation and rotation. The distance from all points to all patterns is defined as the error. Also we use the minimum error to determine the number of patterns. The proposed simulated annealing parameter detection system can search a set of parameter vectors for the global minimal error. In the seismic experiments, the hierarchical system can well detect line of direct wave and hyperbola of reflection wave in the simulated one-shot seismogram and the real seismic data. The results of seismic pattern detection can improve seismic interpretation and further seismic data processing.