Sequencing and analysis of the large virulence plasmid pLVPK of Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43

Ying Tsong Chen, Hwan You Chang, Yi Chyi Lai, Chao Chi Pan, Shih Feng Tsai, Hwei-Ling Peng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

160 Scopus citations


We have determined the entire DNA sequence of pLVPK, which is a 219-kb virulence plasmid harbored in a bacteremic isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A total of 251 open reading frames (ORFs) were annotated, of which 37% have homologous genes of known function, 31% match the hypothetical genes in the GenBank database, and the remaining 32% are novel sequences. The obvious virulence-associated genes carried by the plasmid are the capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulator rmpA and its homolog rmpA2, and multiple iron-acquisition systems, including iucABCDiutA and iroBCDN siderophore gene clusters, Mesorhizobium loti fepBC ABC-type transporter, and Escherichia coli fecIRA, which encodes a Fur-dependent regulatory system for iron uptake. In addition, several gene clusters homologous with copper, silver, lead, and tellurite resistance genes of other bacteria were also identified. Identification of a replication origin consisting of a repA gene lying in between two sets of iterons suggests that the replication of pLVPK is iteron-controlled and the iterons are the binding sites for the repA to initiate replication and maintain copy number of the plasmid. Genes homologous with E. coli sopA/sopB and parA/parB with nearby direct DNA repeats were also identified indicating the presence of an F plasmid-like partitioning system. Finally, the presence of 13 insertion sequences located mostly at the boundaries of the aforementioned gene clusters suggests that pLVPK was derived from a sequential assembly of various horizontally acquired DNA fragments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-198
Number of pages10
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 4 Aug 2004


  • base pair(s)
  • bp
  • Heavy-metal resistance
  • insertion sequence(s)
  • IS
  • Iteron
  • kb
  • kilobase(s)
  • LB
  • Luria-Bertani (medium)
  • open reading frame
  • ORF
  • ori
  • origin of DNA replication
  • rmpA
  • Siderophore
  • Tellurite resistance

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