Bismuth segregation in copper has been studied using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a JEOL 2010F transmission electron microscope. In addition to the expected solute enrichment at grain boundaries, we have observed extremely high concentrations of bismuth at certain triple junctions, with significantly greater enrichment factors than in the adjacent grain boundaries. It is shown here that the triple junction segregation is a function of the parameters of the grain boundaries at the triple line, and existence of this type of segregation implies that the affected triple junctions embody excess free energy. At least one of the observed triple junctions may not obey the usual Σ-product rule, as a result of deviations from the exact coincidence misorientations.
- Grain boundaries
- Triple junctions