Phase-encoded nanostructures such as quick response (QR) codes made of metallic nanoparticles are suggested to be used in security and authentication applications. We present a polarimetric optical method able to authenticate random phase-encoded QR codes. The system is illuminated using polarized light, and the QR code is encoded using a phase-only random mask. Using classification algorithms, it is possible to validate the QR code from the examination of the polarimetric signature of the speckle pattern. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test and Support Vector Machine algorithms to authenticate the phase-encoded QR codes using polarimetric signatures.