We show that the NMR Knight shift anomaly exhibited by a large number of heavy electron materials can be understood in terms of the different hyperfine couplings of probe nuclei to localized spins and to conduction electrons. The onset of the anomaly is at a temperature T*, below which an itinerant component of the magnetic susceptibility develops. This second component characterizes the polarization of the conduction electrons by the local moments and is a signature of the emerging heavy electron state. The heavy electron component grows as log T below T*, and scales universally for all measured Ce, Yb and U based materials. Our results suggest that T* is not related to the single ion Kondo temperature, TK, but rather represents a correlated Kondo temperature that provides a measure of the strength of the intersite coupling between the local moments. Our analysis strongly supports the two-fluid description of heavy electron materials developed by Nakatsuji, Pines and Fisk.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|State||Published - 1 Dec 2004|