Recycling MSWI bottom and fly ash as raw materials for Portland cement

Jill R. Pan, Ch-Hpin Huang*, Jung Jen Kuo, Sheng Huan Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

186 Scopus citations


Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash is rich in heavy metals and salts. The disposal of MSWI ash without proper treatment may cause serious environmental problems. Recently, the local cement industry in Taiwan has played an important role in the management of solid wastes because it can utilize various kinds of wastes as either fuels or raw materials. The objective of this study is to assess the possibility of MSWI ash reuse as a raw material for cement production. The ash was first washed with water and acid to remove the chlorides, which could cause serious corrosion in the cement kiln. Various amounts of pre-washed ash were added to replace the clay component of the raw materials for cement production. The allowable limits of chloride in the fly ash and bottom ash were found to be 1.75% and 3.50% respectively. The results indicate that cement production can be a feasible alternative for MSWI ash management. It is also evident that the addition of either fly ash or bottom ash did not have any effect on the compressive strength of the clinker. Cement products conformed to the Chinese National Standard (CNS) of Type II Portland cement with one exception, the setting time of the clinker was much longer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1113-1118
Number of pages6
JournalWaste Management
Issue number7
StatePublished - 17 Apr 2008

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