Compared to organic light-emitting diodes, solid-state light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) exhibit advantages of simple device structures, low operation voltages, and compatibility with air-stable metal electrodes. Since the first demonstration of white LECs in 1997, the cells have been studied extensively, due to their potential applications in solid-state lighting. This article reviews the development of white LECs based on conjugated polymers and cationic transition metal complexes. Important achievements of each work on white LECs are highlighted. Finally, the outlook for future development of white LECs is discussed.
- light-emitting electrochemical cells
- organic light-emitting devices