Yb3+/Er3+-codoped GdBiW2O9 phosphors are prepared via the solid-state route for application in upconversion temperature sensors. The structural analyses indicate that all phosphors possess a single-phased orthorhombic structure. Upon the excitation of a laser wavelength of 980 nm, Yb3+/Er3+-codoped GdBiW2O9 phosphors emanate green emission peaks, endorsed to the emission to the 4I15/2 state from the 4S3/2 and 2H11/2 states, respectively, and the weak emission (red) from the 4F9/2 state to the 4I15/2 state of Er3+ ion. The upconversion mechanism has been elucidated via the scheme of energy levels conferred from the pump power-induced upconversion characteristics. The temperature-dependent upconversion of GdBiW2O9 phosphors was investigated in detail along with the estimation of the stability and repeatability of the measurement. The obtained sensitivity data for the present materials with the corresponding sensing parameters show their probable outlook in temperature sensing applications.