We prove convergence in distribution for the profile (the number of nodes at each level), normalized by its mean, of random recursive trees when the limit ratio α of the level and the logarithm of tree size lies in [0,e). Convergence of all moments is shown to hold only for α [0,1] (with only convergence of finite moments when α (1,e)). When the limit ratio is 0 or 1 for which the limit laws are both constant, we prove asymptotic normality for α = 0 and a "quicksort type" limit law for α = 1, the latter case having additionally a small range where there is no fixed limit law. Our tools are based on the contraction method and method of moments. Similar phenomena also hold for other classes of trees; we apply our tools to binary search trees and give a complete characterization of the profile. The profiles of these random trees represent concrete examples for which the range of convergence in distribution differs from that of convergence of all moments.
- Probabilistic analysis of algorithms
- Profile of trees
- Random binary search tree
- Random recursive tree
- Weak convergence