Recently, implantable artificial subretinal chips using electronic components have replaced photoreceptors to serve as the most feasible treatment for retinal diseases. As such a chip that is meant to be implanted and used for very long periods, growing retinal cells on it to improve the electrical stimulation efficiency and attraction of neuronal elements remains a challenge. Here, an inkjet printing technology is employed to create graphene oxide (GO) micropatterns onto microelectrodes of a photovoltaic-powered implantable retinal chip. These GO micropatterns allow human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells to specially attach and grow in each microelectrode. In addition, the cell proliferation, viability, and tight junction of RPE cells are improved during culturing. The development of a simple surface-coating technology would pave the way for the development of the first fully integrated and encapsulated retinal prostheses with biocompatible on-chip microelectrodes for long-term implantation, which could be effectively applied in retina tissue engineering and therapy.
- graphene oxide
- inkjet printing
- retinal pigment epithelium cells
- subretinal chips