Research on public security, especially the safe manipulation and control of vehicles, has gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes a closed-loop drowsiness monitoring and management system that can estimate subjects' driving performance. The system observes electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics and behavioral changes, delivers arousing feedback to individuals experiencing momentary cognitive lapses, and assesses the efficacy of the feedback. Results of this study showed that the arousing feedback immediately improved subject performance, which was accompanied by concurrent theta- and alpha-power suppression in the bilateral occipital areas. This study further demonstrated the feasibility of accurately assessing the efficacy of arousing feedback presented to drowsy participants by monitoring the changes in their EEG power spectra.