This study experimentally examines the influence of the inlet locations on the flow distributions of the multi-channel cold plate by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow visualization for a total of five inlet configurations (namely, U-, I-, J-, L-, and Z-arrangements) are reported in this study. For the U-arrangement, a higher inlet flow rate of the cold plate shows more pronounced maldistribution, and the flow distribution shows three maxima along the channels. The maximum velocity for the J-arrangement occurs at the first few channels from entry. This is attributed to the pressure variation along the inlet and outlet manifold subject to branching and collecting fluid flow. Both J- and Z-arrangements show a detectable flow recirculation at the first few channels, and this phenomenon becomes more pronounced with the rise of inlet flow rate. As a consequence, the pressure drop caused by this considerable recirculation exceeds that of the U-arrangement where the pressure drop is dominated by the impingement flow.
- Flow maldistribution
- Multi-channel cold plate
- Particle image velocimetry (PIV)